Qazi Muhammad was a political and religious leader who became the Head of the Republic of Kurdistan…
Leyla Zana is a Kurdish politician who was imprisoned for ten years for her political activism…
Ḫan[u]ta niyaša ziwe š[i]nute zuturiya ubugara [ḫub]urni tašal killa [z]ili šipri
Ḫumaruḫat uwari wanda[n]ita ukuri kurkurta išalla ulali kabgi a[l]l[i]bgi širit m[u]rnuršu
Wešal tatib tišiya unu[g]a kabšili unugat akli šamšamme[ni tal]il uklal tununi[ka ḫanu]ka
Kalitanil Nikala niḫ[ur]ašal ḫana ḫanuteti attayaštal attari ḫ[u]weti ḫanuka [šati wewe] šati wewe ḫanuku
I have made offerings to the goddess
That she will open her heart in love,
And that my sins will be forgiven.
May my jars of sweet sesame oil please her,
That she may look kindly upon us,
And make us fruitful.Like the sprouting fields of grain,
May women bring forth with their husbands
And may those who are yet virgins
One day be blessed with children.
By approximately 4300 BC, a new culture, and possibly a new people, came to dominate the mountains: the Hurrians.
Of the Hurrians we know much more, and the volume of our knowledge becomes greater as the time becomes more recent. We know, for example, that the Hurrians spread far and wide into the Zagros-Taurus-Pontus mountain systems, and intruded for a time also on the neighboring plains of Mesopotamia and the Iranian Plateau. However, they never expanded too far from the mountains. Their economy was surprisingly integrated and focused, along with their political bonds, which runs largely parallel with the Zagros-Taurus-Pontus mountains, rather than radiating out to the lowlands, as was the case during the preceding Ubaid cultural period. Mountain-plain economic exchanges remained secondary in importance, judging by the archaeological remains of goods and their origin.